Breathing

Adduci, Michael Douglas. “Dynamic Measurement of Intraoral Pressure with Laryngoscopic Characterization during Oboe Performance.” PhD diss., University of North Texas, 2011.

Using flexible fiberoptic nasoendoscopy, Adduci measures intraoral and sound pressure in oboists while they played varied dynamics, straight tones and vibrato. He addresses hearing damage, focal dystonias, velopharyngeal insufficiency and fatigue in relation to proper musculature use in breathing and playing the oboe.

Belser, Ann. “Current Events: Oboists in the News- Asthmatic Man Says Playing Oboe Has Been Instrumental in Recovery.” The Double Reed 26, no. 4 (2003): 27-28.

The story of Brian Simpson, an oboist and respiratory therapist, who utilized playing his oboe in rehabilitation. He found improvement in lung function, starting at only being able to play for a few minutes at a time, working up to 2.5 to 3 hours a day. Due to this strengthening, his need for steroids had decreased by eighty percent.

Caplan, Stephen. The Breathing Book. Flagstaff, Arizona: Mountain Peak Music, 2014.

Caplan uses the theory and application of body mapping to oboist technique with a specific focus on breathing. A user friendly manual, it includes many diagrams and exercises. Ideal as a teaching tool to help students better understand the musculoskeletal structure on the body.

Gaunt, Helena. “Learning and Teaching Breathing and Oboe Playing: Action Research in a Conservatoire.” British Journal of Music Education 24 (July 2007): 207-31.

Gaunt taught breathing techniques to students and monitored their application. Considered key issues of anatomical and physiological understanding, awareness of air and postural distortion with muscular pressure, and maintaining physical flexibility and avoiding excess tension. Utilized Alexander Technique practices.

Lucia, Raymond Martin. “The Effects of Playing a Musical Wind Instrument in Asthmatic Teenagers.” DEd diss., Columbia University, 1993.

Through his study of asthma related literature, common exercises for strengthening lung endurance and a survey of asthmatic teenagers, Lucia attempts to prove that wind instruments can be beneficial. He states that the physiological efforts in playing wind instruments are complementary to strengthening exercises prescribed by physicians. This dissertation would especially be useful to teachers and parents in discerning whether an asthmatic student should pursue playing the oboe.

Raum, Elizabeth. “Spotlight on Woodwinds: Oboe Basics (Part II).” Canadian Winds: The Journal of the Canadian Band Association 6 (Fall 2007): 24-26.

A follow up to her first article published in Canadian Winds (Spring 2007) about the basics of the oboe and reeds, Raum now articulates the physical aspect of playing the oboe for teachers of young oboists. The breathing section addresses dizziness from poor breath support, engaging abdominal muscles, and the importance of exhaling before inhaling to release stale air.

Reinert, C. Robert. “Breathe, Don’t Blow.” The Double Reed 21, no. 3 (1998): 115-17.

Reinert discusses the physiology of breathing for bassoonists, the practices are applicable for oboists as well. He discusses releasing muscle tension and avoidance of excessive air resistance. Rigid muscles in the throat, neck, arms, and shoulders impede freedom of inhalation and exhalation.

Robinson, Joseph. “Oboists, Exhale before Playing.” The Instrumentalist 41 (May 1987): 23-27. The Double Reed 19, no. 3 (1996): 93-96. Reprint.

Robinson primarily discusses the importance of air in phrasing and musicality but also touches on some physical symptoms of tension in the body due to poor air support and use: strained abdominal muscles, lock-jaw, and over-inhalation. He states that free-flowing physical energy in the musculature of the body, no rigidity, is key to quality musicianship.

Robinson, Joseph. “The Oboe is a Wind Instrument.” In The Biology of Music Making: Proceedings of the 1984 Denver Conference, edited by Franz L. Roehmann and Frank R. Wilson. 134-43. St. Louis, Missouri. The Biology of Making Inc, 1988.

Robinson, retired principal oboist of the New York Philharmonic, expounds his knowledge and experiences in the functionality and importance on good breath control. Of interest to health with reference isometric tension and the need to release excess air. He also mentions the physical disabilities he has seen resulting from tension during his career with the Philharmonic.

Rothwell, Evelyn. Oboe Technique. Great Britain, The Camelot Press Ltd. 1962.

Of particular interest are pps. 4-17 on breathing and posture. Rothwell addresses the importance of exhaling, accidental snorting and grunting while playing, and the effects of poor posture.

Teirilä, Marjatta. “Physiology of Wind-Instrument Playing and the Implications for Pedagogy.” PhD diss., Jyväskylä Yliopisto (Finland), 1998. (Verified 2/18/2015, original print document through IBLL.)

A study of Finnish wind-instrument teachers’ knowledge of physiology with a specific focus on proper breathing and good playing technique. Of specific interest are the survey results (pps. 49-53), a paragraph on hearing loss on sensation of pitch (pp. 94), and a section on playing when ill (pp. 105).

Ward, Christopher P., Kaki M. York, and John G. McCoy. “Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Lower in Double Reed Wind Musicians.” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 8, no. 3 (2012): 251-55.

Taking into account gender, age, number of hours played, instrument and years of experience, doctors tested for likeliness of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Results concluded that double reed players have a lower risk of OSA than non-wind players and the risk lowered even more with increased hours of practice. Improvement due to the strength training of the upper-airway muscles while playing a high-pressure instrument.

Whittow, Marion. Oboe: A Reed Blown in the Wind. London: Puffit Publications, 1991.

Whittow discusses the physical effects of built up CO2 when an oboists does not exhale before inhalation, pp. 20. She provides exercises and tips for proper breathing techniques. She also briefly addresses proper posture in regards to breathing, tone production and tuning on pp. 23.