Hearing

Chasin, Marshall. Hear the Music: Hearing Loss Prevention for Musicians. 4th ed. Canada, 2010. Self-published. Accessed through http://www.musciansclinics.com.

For musicians who want to better understand, prevent or manage hearing loss. Marshall explains the factors that affect hearing loss, strategies to reduce hearing loss, and technical details for those who are interested in delving deeper into hearing loss mechanics. Charts, diagrams, anatomical drawings included.

Dawson, William. “Ask the Doctor: Hearing Loss.” The Double Reed 22, no. 3 (1999): 99-100.

Different causes of hearing loss are highlighted. Dawson details functionality and common symptoms of NIHL, how to diagnose the problem and possible types of ear plugs for use in loud situations. He also discusses prebyacusis and the steps of progression in age related hearing loss and the use of hearing aids.

Dawson, William. “Hearing Loss from Music- Causes, Treatment, and Prevention.” The Double Reed 30, no. 2 (2007): 97-99.

Occupational Safety and Health Association standards are outlined. Dr. Dawson explains how, when and where damage can happen to the ear. Noise induced hearing loss and tinnitus are highlighted, including a sample chart of an audiogram of patient with NIHL. Different ear plugs and attenuators are reviewed.

Deatherage, Patricia M. “Effects of Music on Extended High-Frequency Hearing.” MA thesis, Miami University, 2003.

Deatherage assesses noise induced hearing loss among musicians. She surveyed and tested two groups, one musicians, the other not. Some possible solutions for hearing protection are recommended, including ear plugs, exercise, and vitamin e applied in the ear.

Goodman, Kathy Landau. “Attitudes and Use of Musician’s Earplugs.” PhD diss., Central Michigan University, 2001.

Of the 102 musicians in a professional orchestra offered free, custom musician’s earplugs, only 42 accepted them. Goodman’s goal was to understand better why orchestra musicians would not be interested in using ear plugs and protecting their hearing. Musician comments from the survey are enlightening as to musician concerns for ear plug use.

Gordan, Roderick. “Health Hazard: Sound Pollution.” Music Journal 31 (December 1973): 27, 37.

An intriguing article written in the early 1970’s on music sound pollution awareness. Gordon, an oboist and university professor, uses an oscilloscope to measure volume in decibels. His interest is in the high-frequency hearing loss in his students, the use of amplification and the measurement of sound in all areas of life.

Holland, Nicholas Vedder. “Mapping Sound Intensities by Seating Position in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Hearing Loss, Temporary Threshold Shifts, and Comparisons with Standards of OSHA and NIOSH.” PhD diss., The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2004.

Holland measured sound pressure levels in a university band setting to determine if they exceeded the safe levels established by health administrations. He discusses the anatomy of the ear, hearing capacity, loss, threshold shifts, and measurement of sound and acoustics. Research and findings are extensive.

Jansen, E.J.M., H.W. Helleman, W.A. Dreschler, and J.A.P.M. de Laat. “Noise Induced Hearing Loss and Other Hearing Complaints among Musicians of Symphony Orchestras.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 82 (2009): 153-64.

A large body of professional symphony musicians were surveyed and tested with the intent to better understand if hearing loss was increased significantly among musicians in comparison to societal standards. Extensive information given, scientifically based, testing audiometric thresholds, loudness perception, tinnitus, and speech perception in noise.

Miller, Cherisse Westmoreland. “Musicians with Hearing Loss: A Basic Guide for Teachers and Performers.” PhD diss., University of South Carolina, 2009.

Miller surveyed adult musicians with significant hearing loss as a portion of her research. She discovered that most were able to still participate and perform in music settings through the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and visual cues. She discusses the anatomy of the ear, types and causes of hearing loss, treatments, and hearing protection for musicians.

Vincent, Brendan Robert. “The Effect of Hearing Conservation Counseling Using Individualized OSHA and ACGIH Noise Exposure Data on Music Majors’ Perception of Sound Exposure.” MA thesis, The University of Alabama, 2010.

A survey of undergraduate music students was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of hearing conservation counseling and to ascertain students’ awareness of hearing health issues. Of particular interest are the pages of Vincent’s collected research, pps. 1-30, on musician’s risk, hearing loss, protection devices and environmental factors.

Walter, Jennifer Stewart. “Sound Exposure Levels Experienced by University Wind Band Members.” Medical Problems of Performing Artists 24 (June 2009): 63-70.

Walter examines sound exposure in regards to a musician’s location in standard band seating arrangements. Includes diagrams of different typical wind band setups and breaks down which instruments are most likely to incur an excess of sound pressure exposure.